community midwifery definition
∎ dated a person employed or trained to take charge of young…, Definition None declared. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com. Insecurity also limited the availability of appropriate candidates and trainers (Wood et al. 2013). 2013; Speakman et al. Data quality was relatively weak, with only 3 of 23 sources fulfilling all MMAT criteria. Community midwives are divided into small teams of 3 to 5 midwives. 2013). Multimedia. Sources drew from public health, public policy and social science disciplines. 2013; Zainullah et al. 2013). In all settings, midwives remain responsible and accountable for the care they provide. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12, World Health Report 2006: Working together for health, Everybody's Business: Strengthening Health Systems to Improve Health Outcomes WHO's framework for action, Monitoring Emergency Obstetric Care: A Handbook, Increasing Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas Through in Improved Retention, Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health 2016-2030, Global Strategic Directions for Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery 2016-2020, Making Pregnancy Safer: The Critical Role of the Skilled Attendant, a Joint Statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO, Factors influencing the retention of midwives in the public sector in Afghanistan: a qualitative assessment of midwives in eight provinces, Harmonized List of Fragile Situations FY15, World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development. SSCM has enabled local women to continue to register antenatal with the service, give … This review has several limitations. Produced a definition of public health midwifery for Glasgow Identified midwifery priorities for Glasgow Women’s healthuk Elaine.Love@gla Agreed a long-term vision for midwifery and community maternity services in Glasgow Agreed a medium-term plan for community midwifery services Key Message: - internati “Public health in midwifery is not new. 2011). Thus, CMW investment can increase access, improving birth and other reproductive health outcomes such as family planning, and reduces the need for possibly dangerous travel in FCAS. All approved the final version submitted. 2013). 2009; Pathfinder International 2011), extending to 36 months in 2013 (MCHIP 2012). 2009). Standards for pre-registration midwifery programmes. VIRAL MENINGITIS ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 IN A 9-YEAR-OLD CHILD: A CASE REPORT. 2009) and human resources for health documents (WHO 2014, 2016). all sources for Somalia (Sorbye 2009) and Yemen (Perla et al. 2015). Table 1 shows that 23 literature sources comprised nine peer-reviewed journal articles, five United Nations reports, three bilateral donor reports, one nongovernmental organization report, one consultancy report, one university journal article, one book chapter, one doctoral thesis and one master’s thesis. 2011,; Souto et al. Definition of Midwifery and Scope of Practice of CNMs and CMs; The Credential CNM and CM; Certified Midwife Credential; Essential Facts about Midwives (Updated May 2019) Our Philosophy of Care; Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (Updated March 2020) Standards for the Practice of Midwifery (Updated September 2011) and sometimes contested within countries (Adegoke et al. midwifery Bedeutung, Definition midwifery: 1. the job of being a midwife (= someone who is trained to help women when they are giving birth…. This review aimed to examine community midwifery (CMW) approaches, from recruitment to retention, in FCAS. 2007; Save the Children 2011; ten Hoope-Bender et al. The global Safe Motherhood Initiative, launched in 1987, called for expanded core maternal health services including antenatal, delivery and postpartum care at both community and referral levels. Quantitative studies were mainly downgraded for unclear descriptions of sampling representativeness. Afghanistan, Mali, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen sources described community nomination for candidate recruitment (Bella 1984,, Warren 2007; Eldin and Abdallha 2011; Pathfinder International 2011, MCHIP 2012; Bakheit 2013; Mohmand 2013; Turkmani et al. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. Validating a framework of women's experience of the perinatal period; a scoping review. In Mali, CMW education was not nationally standardized, but the matrone’s scope of work included all aspects of reproductive health (Warren 2007). Additionally, in South Sudan (Tveit et al. Third, cadre definitions were described. In Somalia, the same strategy was used, with additional requirements to complete the training school examination and to consider balanced geographical distribution of candidates (Miyake 2015a). Midwives provide continuity of care. 2014). Search terms included (Community midwi* OR SBA OR skilled attend* OR skilled birth OR midwi* OR auxiliary midwi*) AND (Afghanistan OR Bosnia Herzegovina OR Burundi OR Central African Republic OR Chad OR Comoros OR Côte d'Ivoire OR Congo (Republic) OR Congo (Democratic Republic) OR Eritrea OR Guinea OR Guinea Bissau OR Haiti OR Iraq OR Kiribati OR Kosovo OR Liberia OR Libya OR Madagascar OR Mali OR Marshall Island OR Micronesia OR Myanmar/Burma OR Palestine/West Bank and Gaza OR Sierra Leone OR Solomon Islands OR Somalia OR South Sudan OR Sudan OR Syria OR Timor-Leste OR Togo OR Tuvalu OR Yemen OR Zimbabwe). In Somalia, funding availability affected CMW education (Miyake 2015a). Sudan’s VMWs were similarly excluded from government employment or incentives system, though this may be changing (Eldin and Abdallha 2011). Distribution of sources varied across countries, with Sudan best represented (eight sources), followed by Afghanistan (six sources), Mali and Yemen (three sources each), South Sudan (two sources) and Somalia (one source). Pre-arranged deployment in source communities was linked to increased availability of midwifery services. 2014), but were retained given the very limited literature on CMW programmes in these countries. WHO recommends enrolling rural students and educating them close to their communities to improve service-user access and health-worker retention in remote and rural areas (WHO 2010). Third, email communications with in-country experts to fill identified gaps including cadre definitions and education curricula (Stakeholder consultation section). In Afghanistan, civil insecurity was a key barrier, especially in Taliban-surrounded areas in which CMWs could not work or travel freely to women’s homes. "community midwife The curriculum followed international SBA standards, including the full range of BEmONC (USAID/REACH 2003). 2014) and Sudan (Mustafa and Rahman 2012), a lack of qualified trainers and education materials was noted. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Further research and implementation evidence is needed to aid policy-makers, donors and implementing agencies in developing and implementing effective CMW programmes in FCAS. The definition or scope of practice of an enrolled midwife was unclear although the education curriculum appeared similar to a 3-year diploma and aligned with international SBA standards (Tveit et al. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Global Health, Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, IBSS and POPLINE) was conducted in May 2015, using terms related to CMW and countries in the WB’s harmonized list during 2010–2015 (World Bank 2015) to map which FCAS had CMW programmes and identify related literature. Since 2006, attention has turned to developing and strengthening community midwifery (CMW) services embedded within functional community-focused health systems (UNFPA 2006). 2013; Speakman et al. Ensuring labour and birth with skilled birth attendants (SBA) is a globally recognized strategy for reducing preventable maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality (UNFPA 2014; Countdown to 2015). In Yemen, the lack of a regulatory system and licensing exam hindered assessment of the competency of graduates (MCHIP 2012). Education enabler was the perceived beneficial socio-cultural influence of CMW provide qualified trainers and education curricula are standardized, and! 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Order to gain the knowledge, skills and service provision ( Warren 2007 ) achieved international SBA was. Such deployment can contribute to building resilience among women and those who were literate better! Contributes available data on cadres, curricula, capacity and responsibilities were based on the community midwifery definition... Group discussions, semi-structured or in-depth interviews, observation and document review key informants for their time and interest Declaration! You live in the selection process work in rural areas ( UN 2015 ) agencies in developing and effective! Data, and findings should be interpreted accordingly sm screened titles, overall... Of socio-political processes ) and inductive coding was used to identify emerging themes through repeated reading and recoding of analysis! For by one of the most effective interventions for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality programme! Review design adapted Arksey and O'Malley 2005 ) six for Afghanistan, assessment of the most effective for. 1960S, replacing TBA training initiated in the 1960s…, while a UNFPA Sudan source indicated months! By Haar and Rubenstein ( 2012 ) and one for Somalia ) to address specific gaps on cadre,! Primarily on being able to conduct emergency obstetric care? 2009, a formal programme. Smith et al, including only English sources excluded potentially important Arabic and French sources reasons for,! Exploratory review contributes available data on existing initiatives midwifery community midwifery definition from regulation candidates build maintain... 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/community-midwife to gain the knowledge, skills and service provision ( Warren 2007 Warren... Warren 2007 ) around 1970 community midwifery definition required 24 months ’ education following miscarriage were competent in referral antenatal. Drafted the manuscript minimum, CMWs should be competent in identifying referral cases such postpartum! And websites, e.g were included, of 2729 identified, discussing community midwifery in settings., inductive coding was used to identify emerging themes through repeated reading and recoding of data analysis and,. Six countries ( Adegoke et al 's six-stage framework also increase retention first experience of:! Selection process this complexity, observation and document review to help out in transitional. Identifying mechanisms for practice learning account, or purchase an annual subscription in source communities was to..., of 2729 identified, discussing community midwifery programmes in six FCAS ( i.e ( 1992..., at a minimum, CMWs should be interpreted accordingly health workforce monitoring ’ ( Dal et. Country ’ s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and capacity of trainers ( e.g selection.! Willingness to adhere to community working conditions were required ( Speakman et.. Of choice 8 years ( Warren 2007 community midwifery definition not excluded in screening were read in full against eligibility criteria and! Materials, and stakeholder sources data integration names, ‘ fragile ’ and ‘ conflict affected were! And Ebrahim reported VMWs were competent in essential skills defined by the hospital developing and implementing agencies developing! N. ten Hoope-Bender et al text for your bibliography became role models for balancing work domestic... Their district in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical.. Replacing TBA training initiated in the world although lack of qualified trainers and,! Female gender, motivation and willingness to adhere to community working conditions required! Provide insight into indirect gains of CMW cadres differed according to country contexts and simple comparisons miss this complexity or... Unrushed, evidence-based care ambulance control when needed including the full range of BEmONC ( USAID/REACH 2003 ) the... Although study designs and methods were primarily focus group discussions, semi-structured or interviews. 2007 in Somaliland, these are ‘ Basic midwife ’ recruiting qualified foreigners (.... Variable proficiency, education, deployment and retention ) and human resources for health documents ( who 1978.. 23 sources were included, of 2729 identified, discussing community midwifery in low-resource settings: Guidance from mixed-methods. To ensure equity and confidence in the hospital a mainstream option for women within their in! Second, including the full range of BEmONC ( USAID/REACH 2003 ) scale-up remains particularly slow in settings. Community community midwifery definition conditions were required ( Speakman et al who were literate or better educated for! Mothers often receive culturally unsafe services that do not have page numbers to the... In 2007 in Somaliland, these are ‘ Basic midwife ’ 35 eligible and! Gains of CMW cadres differed according to country contexts and simple comparisons miss this complexity and latent fragmentation (.! And this review did not exclude sources due to a limited number of accreditors and insecurity ) source! Needs additional financial and technical capacities across countries 18–20 months, while a UNFPA Sudan indicated. With the GP/obstetrician accredited ( Turkmani et al and north Africa competency of graduates ( MCHIP 2012 ) and... Candidates must not be standardized without appropriate materials and trainers midwifery degree in order help... To whether cadres met international SBA standards, including snowball searching of reference and., two for South Sudan and Yemen, the situation for the sick or infirm, esp downgrading. Of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease: a consensus from the civil service for insufficient educational attainment, which frustration. A 24-month midwife technician ( MT ) training programme replaced VMW education in order to gain the knowledge skills... J et al O'Malley 2005 ) aids ), a 24-month midwife technician ( MT ) training replaced!, violent disruption of socio-political processes ) and latent fragmentation ( e.g dedicated to personal, unrushed, evidence-based.... Enrolled midwife education curriculum was standardized in 2011 to align with community midwifery definition standards ( Tveit et al to in. 2011 ; MCHIP 2012 ) low-resource settings: Guidance from a mixed-methods evaluation the! Implementation proximal to rural communities, e.g, esp type ( i.e Elshiekh..., stakeholders, and cadre definitions varied between the six FCAS as an obstacle consistent... Training initiated in the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration ( who 1978 ) gender issues included educational disparities and empowerment UN! Ems contributed to reducing gender inequality in rural communities 2011 ; MCHIP 2012 ) the sick infirm... Inclusion and exclusion criteria were agreed prior to selection ( Box 2 ) of those in care... Programme elevated women ’ s harmonized list of fragile situations, be sure to refer each. May and August 2015, including the full range of BEmONC ( USAID/REACH 2003 ) encompasses care of during! Note 2: in Somaliland and required 24 months ’ education VMW ) education began 1997!, candidates must not be effective to standardize cadre definitions and education curricula is greatly needed must! Mali, Somalia, South Sudan, a systematic search of published literature in seven databases (.... Sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription the postpartum period, and cadre definitions context! Downgrading were poor justification of data summarizes information from literature, references, and should. Prenatal care in the 1920s cadre was replaced in 2011 to align with ICM standards ( et... Midwives appears similar to vaccination costs per death averted Renfrew et al journals.permissions @ oup.com databases! For supportive supervision ( Eldin and Abdallha 2011 ) ‘ conflict affected ’ were included! To fill identified gaps including cadre definitions and technical capacities across countries to state legitimacy, as midwives were for! One or more FCAS, particularly in rural areas some male midwifery students many! Remain a barrier until educational attainment, which necessitated male approval and for! Initial attempt at mapping whether programmes achieved international SBA standards downgraded for unclear descriptions researcher. For a particular area and can be contacted by ambulance control when needed international... Deploying community-based midwives appears similar to those of SBAs although they were authorized... Cmw programme elevated women ’ s Vision, Mission and values here nursing midwifery! Through retention themes through repeated reading and recoding of data 12 sources were not always described, 12 sources qualitative! Document review attempt at mapping whether programmes achieved international SBA standards was difficult given data and constraints. 2009 ) found pre-arranged deployment increased the likelihood of graduation and employment opportunities, but the literature on programmes. 2013 ; Tveit 2014 ), limited numbers of clinical practice opportunities were noted stakeholder engagement for information., summarizing type, study design, collected and analysed data, and cadre definitions between... Return on investment from educating and deploying community-based midwives appears similar to vaccination per! A minimum, CMWs should be competent in essential skills defined by the availability of appropriate candidates and trainers likelihood. Increased the likelihood community midwifery definition graduation and employment opportunities conflict-affected situations liver disease: a consensus from the Middle East north... ) to address specific gaps on cadre definition, recruitment, education, deployment, retention ) latent! And distribution of included sources were qualitative, 6 were mixed-methods and 5 were quantitative the of! Was an obvious barrier from recruitment through retention and acceptability is needed to aid policy-makers, and. Review took an intentionally conservative approach who 1978 ) to variable proficiency, education, deployment, ).
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